인디안 사이트에서 구한 SWT 문제들인데, 기출에서 나왔다고 합니다만
아직 PTE-A사이트에서는 확인된 바가 없어서, 혹시 아래 기출 문제들을 보셨으면 comment 부탁드립니다.
나머지 신기출들은 기존에 SWT 3월 애나님께서 정리 해주신 자료에서 대부분 확인되었습니다.
http://pte-a.com/bbs/board.php?bo_table=materials&wr_id=2074&page=3 << 신기출 3월 - SWT (29/3 업데잇) by Anna
1. Orbital debris
For decades, space experts have worried that a speeding bit of orbital debris might one day smash a large spacecraft info hundreds of pieces and start a chain reaction, a slow cascade of collisions that would expand for centuries, spreading chaos through the heavens.
In the last decade or so, as scientists came to agree that the number of objects in orbit had surpassed a critical mass – or, in their terms, the critical spatial density, the point at which a chain reaction becomes inevitable – they grew more anxious.
Early this year, after a half-century of growth, the federal list of detectable objects ( four inches wide or larger) reached 10,000, including dead satellites, spent rocket stages, a camera, a hand tool and junkyards of whirling debris left over from chance explosions and destructive tests. So our billion dollar of satellites are at risk.
2. Dinosaur Extinction
What killed off the dinosaurs?
The end of the Cretaceous Period saw one of the most dramatic mass extinctions the Earth has ever seen. The fossil record shows that throughout their 160 million year existence, dinosaurs took on a huge variety of forms as the environment changed and new species evolved that were suited to these new conditions. Others that failed to adapt went extinct.
But then 66 million years ago, over a relatively short time, dinosaurs disappeared completely (except for birds). Many other animals also died out, including pterosaurs, large marine reptiles, and other sea creatures such as ammonites. Although the number of dinosaur species was already declining, this suggests a sudden catastrophic event sealed their fate, causing unfavorable changes to environment more quickly than dinosaurs and other creatures could adapt.
The exact nature of this catastrophic event is still open to scientific debate. The catastrophe could have been an asteroid impact, volcanic eruptions or the effect of both, together with more gradual changes in the Earth’s climate over millions of years. Whatever the causes, the huge extinction that ended the age of the dinosaur left gaps in the ecosystem that were subsequently filled by mammals and birds, allowing them to evolve rapidly.
Coffee is enjoyed by millions of people every day and the 'coffee experience' has become a staple of our modern life and culture. While the current body of research related to the effects of coffee consumption on human health has been contradictory, a study in the June issue of Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, which is published by the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), found that the potential benefits of moderate coffee drinking outweigh the risks in adult consumers for the majority of major health outcomes considered.
Researchers at Ulster University systematically reviewed 1,277 studies from 1970 to-date on coffee's effect on human health and found the general scientific consensus is that regular, moderate coffee drinking (defined as 3-4 cups per day) essentially has a neutral effect on health, or can be mildly beneficial.
The authors noted causality of risks and benefits cannot be established for either with the research currently available as they are largely based on observational data. Further research is needed to quantify the risk-benefit balance for coffee consumption, as well as identify which of coffee's many active ingredients, or indeed the combination of such, that could be inducing these health benefits.
4. The Sphinx
The face, though better preserved than most of the statue, has been battered by centuries of weathering and vandalism. In 1402, an Arab historian reported that a Sufi zealot had disfigured it “to remedy some religious errors.” Yet there are clues to what the face looked like in its prime. Archaeological excavations in the early 19th century found pieces of its carved stone beard and a royal cobra emblem from its headdress. Residues of red pigment are still visible on the face, leading researchers to conclude that at some point, the Sphinx’s entire visage was painted red. Traces of blue and yellow paint elsewhere suggest to Lehner that the Sphinx was once decked out in gaudy comic book colors.
For thousands of years, sand buried the colossus up to its shoulders, creating a vast disembodied head atop the eastern edge of the Sahara. Then, in 1817, a Genoese adventurer, Capt. Giovanni Battista Caviglia, led 160 men in the first modern attempt to dig out the Sphinx. They could not hold back the sand, which poured into their excavation pits nearly as fast as they could dig it out. The Egyptian archaeologist Selim Hassan finally freed the statue from the sand in the late 1930s. “The Sphinx has thus emerged into the landscape out of shadows of what seemed to be an impenetrable oblivion,” the New York Times declared.
5. Democracy Government
A government is the organization, machinery, or agency, through which a political unit exercises its authority, controls and administers public policy, and directs and controls the actions of its members or subjects. The government makes laws, regulate economies, conduct relations with other countries, provide infrastructure and services, and maintain an army and a police force amongst others on behalf of the people of the country.
Democracy is any system of government in which the people have the rule. The ancient Greeks used the word democracy to mean government by the many in contrast to government by the few. They key of democracy is that the people hold ultimate power. Abraham Lincoln best captured this spirit by describing democracy as a government of the people, by the people, for the people. Democratic government is opposed to an authoritative government, where the participation of its citizenry is limited or prohibited, and a state of anarchy where no form of government exists.
Over the years there has been a dramatic growth in the number of political regimes that meet basic standards of procedural democracy. Such procedures include freedom of association and expression, competitive elections that determines who holds political power, and systematic constraints on the exercise of authority.
The establishment of democracy in countries with no prior democratic experience, its re-establishment in countries that had experienced periods of authoritarian rule, and the expansion in the number of independent states following the demise of European and Soviet communism led to the adoption of democracy in most countries. As a result of these changes, attention has been focused on constitutional rules that guide competition for and the exercise of political authority under democracy.